5. Research Data Management

5.1. What are research data?

Research data include experimentally captured data sets, processed data, and data computed through computer simulation. The software involved in these steps and meta-data that describes the data are also research data.

Research data is created in virtually any research activity.

5.2. What is research data management?

Research data management includes the storing of data so that it can be actively worked on by the owner, sharing of the data with collaborators, and long term archiving of (important parts of) the data. The organisation and documentation of the data is also part of research data management. For published data, the documentation should be to such a standard that other researchers can understand and re-use the data.

5.3. Why do we need research data management?

Good research data management enables effective use of the data by the creator/owner, verification or reproduction of published research outputs, and re-use of the data leading to new results.

Research data management is part of good scientific practice.

Funding bodies, scientific journals and research organisations (such as the Max Planck Society) are increasingly demanding pro-active data management from applicants, authors and employers.


link to MPG requirement for research data management

5.4. Research data life cycle

For most research projects, there are different stages of working with the relevant research data:

5.4.1. Stage 1: data capture

Initially, data is captured (for example through experiment or computer simulation), and iteratively refined: output from first initial analysis of the data may guide the experiment or choice of simulation parameters that lead to the next data set recorded.

5.4.2. Stage 2: data analysis towards publication

This data capture phase is followed by identification of the most interesting parts of the data, and then an in-depth data analysis of those data sets leading (in many cases) to a publication.

Stage 1 and 2 may merge into each other, for example if the experiment/simulation is available without time limitation and further data capture can be carried out following the analysis.

During stage 1 and 2, we need access to the data sets with a short latency. Typically, such data is stored “on disk” (in particular not on tape).

5.4.3. Stage 3: post publication and data archival

After publication important data should be kept (see Archiving research data).

For economic reasons, such archived data is commonly stored on tape. This means access to the data is slow: it may take minutes, hours or days to get the data back from tape into a system where it can be read and re-processed.

5.5. Research data associated with a publication

To publish scientific results that make use of data (in some form), one should create a data repository for this publication which puts together (somehow) and archives (somehow) the important information that is required to reproduce the findings from the publication manuscript.

Write section on reproducibility.

Comment on “How to manage research data?”

  • Put important and small documents into Version control.

    Simulation research data

    Where the data is computed by a simulation, it is crucial to keep a precise record of the version of the simulation and post-processing software (typically using Version control).

5.6. Dealing with data files

The MPLD summarises some guidance on naming and handling files.

Small and important files should be kept under Version control.

During data capture and data analysis, it is desirable to have backups of the data files to be ready to respond to unexpected hardware failure or user error (such as accidentally deleting important data files). Depending on the file size, this may or may not be possible.

For medium sized projects (below 500GB), the Keeper project from the MPDL can be used here (using the SeaDrive client). Keeper can also turn such a collection of files into an archive when the project is completed.

[To have a backup of local data in the cloud, MPG researchers can also use the GWDG OwnCloud solution for small data sets. By default, this provides 50GB of storage. In contrast to Keeper, there is no associated archival foreseen.]

For very large data sets, such as those captured at X-ray Free Electron Lasers or synchrotrons, the relevant research facility is normally equipped to host the data on the research facility site, and provides computational storage to carry out (at least the initial) analysis on site.

5.7. File formats

5.7.1. General guidance

The MPLD summarises some guidance on file formats.

A lot of thought and planning can go into choosing a suitable file format to keep the data of a research project. In the rare case of starting a research project where there are existing standard or legacy file formats or conventions, one should choose file formats that are feasible and convenient to assess in the future.

There are a number metrics that can be optimised in choosing such suitable file format. These include: simplicity, human-readability, compression, write speed, read speed, accessibility on different platforms, open documentation, widespread adoption in the community, number of files and open source. Please seek advice if desired.

In addition to storing data in the files, we also need to document the meaning of the stored data (i.e. provide metadata to make the data interpretable).


Add links to documents that discuss this

5.7.2. Domain specific file formats

Some communities have created domain specific data file formats that are self describing and - through this design - embed the metadata automatically.

For example:

If you can use such a self-describing file format (or develop your own), this simplifies creating meaningful archival of the data.

It provides other benefits: all data sets using the same file format can be processed by data analysis tools that support the file format.